The efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour: a randomised clinical trial

Cover image for Vol. 65 Issue 5
International Dental Journal
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2015
DOI: 10.1111/idj.12183



This study compared the efficacy of two oral hygiene regimens in reducing oral malodour and the proportions of bacterial species involved in the production of volatile sulphur compounds.

Material and Methods

Seventy subjects who participated in a halitosis-induction phase and achieved an organoleptic score of ≥3.0 [time point 0 (T0)] randomised into two groups: brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste alone (control group) or brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste followed by rinsing with a 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash (CPC group). Subjects followed their assigned oral hygiene regimen for 21 days. Then, they underwent an organoleptic examination and measurement of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) using a portable gas chromatograph, 12 hours after their last oral hygiene procedure (T1) and 4 hours after an on-site oral hygiene (T2). Microbiological samples (supragingival biofilm, tongue coating and saliva) were analysed using checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridisation.


Both therapies statistically significantly improved the organoleptic scores (P < 0.05), but the VSC levels and/or concentrations were reduced only in the CPC group (P < 0.05). In subjects rinsing with CPC, oral malodour scores were reduced by 49% at the 4-hour assessment (T2) compared with those not rinsing (P < 0.05). Red-complex pathogens were reduced more effectively in the CPC group than in the control group.


Brushing followed by rinsing with a 0.075% CPC mouthwash provided statistically significantly greater reductions in oral malodour, measured organoleptically and instrumentally, and in the proportions of red-complex species when compared with brushing alone.


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