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Deep Learning for the Radiographic Detection of Apical Lesions

Published online: May 31, 2019 Abstract Introduction We applied deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect apical lesions (ALs) on panoramic dental radiographs. Methods Based on a synthesized data set of 2001 tooth segments from panoramic radiographs, a custom-made 7-layer deep neural network, parameterized by a total number of 4,299,651 weights, was trained and validated via 10 times repeated group shuffling. Hyperparameters were tuned using a grid search. Our reference test was the majority vote of 6 independent examiners who detected ALs on an ordinal scale (0, no AL; 1, widened periodontal ligament, uncertain AL; 2, clearly detectable lesion, certain AL). Metrics were the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values. Subgroup analysis for tooth types was performed, and different margins of agreement of the reference test were applied (base case: 2; sensitivity analysis: 6). Resu…

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