Accessory mental foramina and nerves: Application to periodontal, periapical, and implant surgery
Iwanaga, J., Watanabe, K., Saga, T., Tabira, Y., Kitashima, S., Kusukawa, J. and Yamaki, K.-I. (2015), Accessory mental foramina and nerves: Application to periodontal, periapical, and implant surgery. Clin. Anat.. doi: 10.1002/ca.22635
Recent studies investigating accessory mental foramina using developments in diagnostic imaging have primarily defined the morphology of the foramina; however, few studies have described the structures passing through them. Additional clinical knowledge of the foramina is therefore required for preoperative diagnosis prior to surgery, including implant, periodontal and periapical surgery. In this study, we investigated the accessory mental foramina and the associated nerves and arteries in donated cadaveric mandibles using anatomical and radiological observation methods. We examined 63 mandibles with overlying soft tissue by cone-beam computed tomography and noted the existence of the accessory mental foramina. Mandibles with accessory mental foramina were subsequently analyzed. Additionally, the neurovascular bundles passing through these foramina were dissected using anatomical methods.The incidence of accessory mental foramina was 14.3%. The larger foramina tended to be located anteriorly or superiorly and proximal to the mental foramen, while the smaller foramina tended to be located posterosuperiorly and distal to the mental foramen. The mental foramen ipsilateral to the accessory mental foramen was smaller than the one contralateral to it. The comparatively distant and large accessory mental foramen included an artery.This study elucidated the relationship between accessory mental foramina and the associated nerves and arteries. We believe that the results will contribute to the clinical dentistry field. Clin. Anat., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.