Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment in smokers: a randomized clinical trial



This study aims to investigate the additional influence of multiple applications of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in smokers with chronic periodontitis.

Materials and methods

Twenty smokers with chronic periodontitis were treated in a split-mouth design study with aPDT adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing (SRP) or SRP. aPDT was performed by using a laser light source with 660 nm wavelength associated with a photosensitizer. The applications were performed in four episodes (at days 0, 2, 7, and 14). All patients were monitored for 90 days. Plaque index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing were performed at baseline, 30, and 90 days after the SRP. Gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival plaque samples were collected for immunological and microbiological analysis, respectively. Data obtained were statistically analyzed.


aPDT as an adjunct to SRP did not demonstrate statistically significant advantages on clinical parameters when compared with SRP alone. No statistic significant differences between groups were observed (p < 0.05). Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial species were comparable in both groups at day 90 after treatment.


Periodontal treatment with SRP + aPDT in multiples episodes was not able to promote additional clinical, immunological, and microbiological benefits in smokers when compared SRP alone in patients with chronic periodontitis.

Clinical relevance

Multiple episodes of aPDT adjunctive to non-surgical treatment did not improve significantly the clinical, immunological, and microbiological parameters when compared with SRP alone. More randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate adjuvant therapies for scaling and root planning in smokers with chronic periodontitis. Identifier: NCT03039244


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