A novel dentin bonding system containing poly(methacrylic acid) grafted nanoclay: Synthesis, characterization and properties

Dental Materials Pages 1041-1050, October 2012



Developing a novel dentin bonding system containing poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanoclay (PMAA-g-nanoclay) as reinforcing filler, with high stability of nanoparticle dispersion and improved bond strength and mechanical properties were the main objectives of this study.

Materials and methods

Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) was grafted onto the pristine sodium montmorrillonite (Na-MMT) nanoclay surface and characterized using FTIR, TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PMAA-g-nanoclay was incorporated into an experimental dentin bonding system as filler in different concentrations and stability of nanoclay dispersion in the dilute adhesive, morphology of nanoclay layers in the photocured adhesive matrix, shear bond strength to caries-free extracted human premolar teeth, and mode of failure were studied. The mechanical properties including diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength (FS), and flexural modulus (FM) were also investigated. The measured FM was also compared to theoretical prediction models.


The grafting of PMAA onto the nanoclay surface was confirmed and the results revealed a partially exfoliated structure for PMAA-g-nanoclay. The dispersion stability of the modified nanoparticles in the dilute adhesive increased more than 45 times in comparison with the pristine nanoclay. The incorporation of 0.5wt.% PMAA-g-nanoclay to the adhesive resulted in a significant increase in microshear bond strength, DTS, and FS. Higher PMAA-g-nanoclay contents resulted in increased flexural modulus. The experimental flexural modulus was in good agreement with the Halpin–Tsai theoretical model.


Incorporation of PMAA-g-nanoclay particles as novel functional fillers into dental adhesive could result in the development of bonding systems with improved physical, mechanical, and adhesion properties.


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