Antibiotic treatment to prevent post-extraction complications: a monocentric, randomized clinical trial. Preliminary outcomes.

Minerva Stomatol. 2017 May 31. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4970.17.04047-X. [Epub ahead of print]



Tooth extraction is a very common procedure in oral surgery. Despite this, very little information is available in the literature as to the antibiotic management of the patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the antibiotic prophylaxis could be beneficial in preventing post- extraction local complications and whether the use of a probiotic could help reduce the antibiotic gastro-intestinal side effects.


111 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were initially included in this randomized clinical trial and randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a computer-generated randomization list. Patients allocated to the group 1 were given amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (2 grams/day for 6 days), patients allocated to the group 2 received antibiotic+ probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum + lactoferrin) and patients allocated to the group 3 received no antibiotic therapy after the extraction. To evaluate post-extractive complications, controls were performed at days 7, 14 and 21 after the extraction.


At T1 pain at the surgical site was present in the 48%, 30% and 71.4% of the patients belonging respectively to the antibiotic alone group, to the antibiotic+probiotic group and to the control group. The mean Numeric Rating Score (NRS) score was 1.56±1.91, 1.08±1.93, 2.02±2.27 respectively (P=0.0498). Two patients belonging to the control group experienced dry socket. In addition, 9 patients (33.3%) in the antibiotic-alone group and 1 patient (2.7%) in the antibiotic+probiotic group reported intestinal distension (p=0.0012), 7 days after surgery. Finally, diarrhea was recorded in 5 patients of the antibiotic alone group (18.5%), on the other hand, no patients of the antibiotic+probiotic group and the control group reported diarrhea.


Post-extractive complications observed in each group have been mild and fast to resolve. The antibiotic administration showed a decrease in pain suffered by patients but a higher incidence of gastro-intestinal side effects, such as abdominal distension and diarrhea, which seemed to be relieved by the concomitant use of the probiotic.


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