Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate remineralization of primary teeth early enamel lesions

Reminerilizing toothpastes maybe better for kids then fluoride toothpaste? Interesting as I recommend these toothpastes strictly for high caries patients but maybe everyone could benefit? MJ
Available online 20 November 2013



Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious problem that progresses rapidly and often goes untreated. Current traumatic treatments may be replaced by safe and effective remineralization at very early stages.


The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste on enamel lesions by assessing ultrastructure, nanomechanical properties, and compound and elemental analysis.


Enamel specimens from 6-year-old children were divided into groups: (1) native enamel; (2) water as negative control; (3) 500 ppm NaF as positive control; and (4–7) CPP–ACP paste for 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, as test groups. Ultrastructure and roughness were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM); nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured by nanoindentation; compound and crystal size of enamel surface patterns were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). An electron microprobe (EPMA) was used for element analysis. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.


The CPP–ACP paste repaired the microstructure of enamel, including prism and interprism, through significantly increased hydroxyapatite crystal size (12.06 ± 0.21 nm) and Ca/P molar ratios (1.637 ± 0.096) as compared with NaF (8.56 ± 0.13 nm crystal size and 1.397 ± 0.086 Ca/P, p < 0.01). Both CPP–ACP and NaF decrease roughness, and increase the nanohardness and elastic modulus, with no significant differences between the materials.


The CPP–ACP paste is more suitable for children than NaF, due to advantages for remineralization. The AFM, nanoindentation, EPMA, and XRD are very helpful methods for further understanding of microscale and nanoscale remineralization mechanisms.