Survey of United States dental schools on cementation protocols for implant crown restorations

Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Volume 103, Issue 2, Pages 68-79 (February 2010)
Diane Yoshinobu Tarica, DDS, Veronica M. Alvarado, DDS, Samantha T. Truong, DDS
Statement of problem

With conflicting results in the literature and various manufacturer recommendations, it is not known what cementation protocols are currently being used for implant restorations in US dental schools.


The purpose of this survey was to determine what dental cementation protocols are taught and recommended by 62 US dental schools and postgraduate programs.

Material and methods

From February to September 2008, 96 questionnaires consisting of 8 questions were sent to the chairperson or director of restorative departments, advanced prosthodontics programs, and implant programs. The questionnaire asked recipients which implant manufacturers provided the products used at their dental schools. Additionally, recipients were queried as to the choice of material and techniques for abutment and restoration preparations prior to definitive cementation. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics.


A total of 68 (71%) surveys were returned, and 52 (84%) of the 62 predoctoral and postgraduate programs were represented. After deleting duplicate responses, 31 surveys were returned from restorative department chairpersons, 29 from advanced prosthodontic program directors, and 2 from implant program directors. Frequency of responses to each question was tabulated, and results are presented in 3 sections. For all 3 types of programs, Nobel Biocare was reported to be the most widely used implant system, followed by Biomet 3i, Straumann, Astra Tech, and Zimmer Dental systems. The most commonly used technique prior to definitive cementation is to airborne-particle abrade the intaglio surface of the restoration. Resin-modified glass ionomer is the most frequently used luting agent for cementing implant restorations. The 5 most commonly used materials to fill screw access openings are cotton pellets, composite resin, rubber-based material, gutta-percha, and light-polymerized provisional composite resin. Most predoctoral and postgraduate programs teach students to fill the screw access opening completely to the occlusal surface.


There are a wide range of implant cementation protocols and materials used; however, some common trends were identified among predoctoral and postgraduate programs.


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