Customized SmartPeg for measurement of resonance frequency of mini dental implants
International Journal of Implant Dentistry20173:4
© The Author(s). 2017
Received: 9 November 2016
Accepted: 13 January 2017
Published: 1 February 2017
One-piece narrow diameter implants (NDIs) have been recommended as “Single-tooth replacements in the anterior zones, single posterior, multiple-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP), edentulous jaws to be rehabilitated with FDP, and edentulous jaws rehabilitation with overdentures in situations with reduced mesiodistal space or reduced ridge width.” (ITI consensus 2013). Since NDIs can be immediately loaded, it is important to be able to carry out stability testing. We developed and validated a customized SmartPeg for this type of implant to measure the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ). The ISQ of mini dental implants (MDIs) was measured and compared with the stability of standard and in a rabbit model.
The aim of the study is to test the feasibility of a customized SmartPeg for resonance frequency measurement of single-piece mini dental implants and to compare primary stability of a standard and the mini dental implant (3M™ESPE™ MDI) in a rabbit model after 6 weeks of healing.
Eight New Zealand white rabbits were used for the study. The protocol was approved by the McGill University Animal Ethics Review Board. Sixteen 3M™ESPE™ MDI and equal number of standard implants (Ankylos® Friadent, Dentsply) were inserted into the tibia/femur of the rabbits and compared. Each rabbit randomly received two 3M™ESPE™ MDI and two Ankylos® implants in each leg. ISQ values were measured with the help of an Osstell ISQ device using custom-made SmartPegs for the MDIs and implant-specific SmartPegs™ (Osstell) for the Ankylos®. Measurements were obtained both immediately following implant placement surgery and after a 6-week healing period. Each reading was taken thrice and their average compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests.
The median ISQ and interquartile range (IQR) values were 53.3 (8.3) at insertion and 60.5 (5.5) at 6 weeks for the 3M™ESPE™MDI and, respectively, 58.5 (4.75) and 65.5 (9.3) for the Ankylos® implant. These values also indicate that both types of implants achieved primary and secondary stability, and this is supported by histological data. ISQ values of both 3M™ESPE™ MDI and Ankylos® increased significantly from the time of insertion to 6 weeks post-insertion (p < 0.05).
The new custom-made SmartPeg is suitable for measuring the Implant Stability Quotient of 3M™ESPE™MDIs. The primary stability of 3M™ESPE™MDIs is similar to the primary stability attained by standard implants in the rabbit tibia.