Comparison of cephalometric measurements between conventional and automatic cephalometric analysis using convolutional neural network


The rapid development of artificial intelligence technologies for medical imaging has recently enabled automatic identification of anatomical landmarks on radiographs. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of an automatic cephalometric analysis using convolutional neural network with those obtained by a conventional cephalometric approach.

Material and methods

Cephalometric measurements of lateral cephalograms from 35 patients were obtained using an automatic program and a conventional program. Fifteen skeletal cephalometric measurements, nine dental cephalometric measurements, and two soft tissue cephalometric measurements obtained by the two methods were compared using paired t test and Bland-Altman plots.


A comparison between the measurements from the automatic and conventional cephalometric analyses in terms of the paired t test confirmed that the saddle angle, linear measurements of maxillary incisor to NA line, and mandibular incisor to NB line showed statistically significant differences. All measurements were within the limits of agreement based on the Bland-Altman plots. The widths of limits of agreement were wider in dental measurements than those in the skeletal measurements.


Automatic cephalometric analyses based on convolutional neural network may offer clinically acceptable diagnostic performance. Careful consideration and additional manual adjustment are needed for dental measurements regarding tooth structures for higher accuracy and better performance.



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