Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular diseases: A 13-year study
Aim: To prospectively evaluate the association between periodontitis and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Thai adults.
Materials and methods: Medical data from the questionnaires and physical examinations of 1,850 participants aged 47-73 years from EGAT study were gathered. Random half-mouth periodontal examination of each participant was performed by calibrated periodontists and periodontal status was defined. The incidence of new cardiovascular disease events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, were verified by cardiologists. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs).
Results: The prevalence of no/mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis in the study participants was 11.7%, 52.7%, and 35.6% respectively. During the 13-year follow-up, cardiovascular disease events occurred in 110 (5.9%) participants, with 82 (4.4%) from coronary heart disease and 28 (1.5%) from stroke. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, a significant association between severe periodontitis and the incidence of coronary heart disease was found compared with the no/mild periodontitis group with an HR=4.53 (95% confidence intervals: 1.08-19.02). However, no significant association was seen when considering total cardiovascular disease events and stroke outcome.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that severe periodontitis is associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors.