To provide an overview on the biology and soft tissue wound healing around teeth and dental implants.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
This narrative review focuses on cell biology and histology of soft tissue wounds around natural teeth and dental implants.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
available data indicate that: Oral wounds follow a similar pattern. The
tissue specificities of the gingival, alveolar and palatal mucosa
appear to be innately and not necessarily functionally determined. The
granulation tissue originating from the periodontal ligament or from
connective tissue originally covered by keratinized epithelium has the
potential to induce keratinization. However, it also appears that deep
palatal connective tissue may not have the same potential to induce
keratinization as the palatal connective tissue originating from an
immediately subepithelial area. Epithelial healing following
non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy appears to be completed
after a period of 7-14 days. Structural integrity of a maturing wound
between a denuded root surface and a soft tissue flap is achieved at
approximately 14-days post-surgery. The formation of the biological
width and maturation of the barrier function around transmucosal
implants requires 6-8 weeks of healing. The established peri-implant
soft connective tissue resembles a scar tissue in composition, fibre
orientation, and vasculature. The peri-implant junctional epithelium may
reach a greater final length under certain conditions such as implants
placed into fresh extraction sockets versus conventional implant
procedures in healed sites.