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Effects of Piezoelectric Units on Pacemaker Function: An In Vitro Study
Journal of Endodontics - October 2013 (Vol. 39, Issue 10, Pages 1296-1299, DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.06.025)
The use of piezoelectric units
on patients with pacemakers is generally discouraged, although there is
no empirical evidence of the effects of current piezoelectric units on
pacemaker activity in vitro.
piezoelectric units (Piezosurgery3, Piezotome, Piezotome2, and
Variosurg) and 2 magnetostriction units (Piezotome and Piezotome2) were
tested for electromagnetic interference (EMI) with the SENSIA SESR01
pacemaker from Medtronic. The pacemaker, with a single electrode, was
immersed in a saline-solution bath and adjusted between 400 and 800 ohms
to simulate the electrical resistance of the human body and to register
and to produce electrographic recordings. The pacemaker was tested with
each ultrasonic device to analyze the presence of EMI at different
distances, with the ultrasound switched on, switched off, and during
operation. If any of the devices produced interference, the
characteristics of the interference were categorized.
the positive control (direct contact between either the electrode or
the generator and the ultrasound device when this was switched on), the
pacemaker detected electrical activity as false heart activity. When all
the scenarios and distances had been covered, no EMI was produced by
the ultrasound units.
No EMI was detected during the testing of the piezoelectric or magnetostriction units in this in vitro model of pacemaker use.