Effects of Piezoelectric Units on Pacemaker Function: An In Vitro Study

Journal of Endodontics - October 2013 (Vol. 39, Issue 10, Pages 1296-1299, DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.06.025)



The use of piezoelectric units on patients with pacemakers is generally discouraged, although there is no empirical evidence of the effects of current piezoelectric units on pacemaker activity in vitro.


Four piezoelectric units (Piezosurgery3, Piezotome, Piezotome2, and Variosurg) and 2 magnetostriction units (Piezotome and Piezotome2) were tested for electromagnetic interference (EMI) with the SENSIA SESR01 pacemaker from Medtronic. The pacemaker, with a single electrode, was immersed in a saline-solution bath and adjusted between 400 and 800 ohms to simulate the electrical resistance of the human body and to register and to produce electrographic recordings. The pacemaker was tested with each ultrasonic device to analyze the presence of EMI at different distances, with the ultrasound switched on, switched off, and during operation. If any of the devices produced interference, the characteristics of the interference were categorized.


In the positive control (direct contact between either the electrode or the generator and the ultrasound device when this was switched on), the pacemaker detected electrical activity as false heart activity. When all the scenarios and distances had been covered, no EMI was produced by the ultrasound units.


No EMI was detected during the testing of the piezoelectric or magnetostriction units in this in vitro model of pacemaker use.


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