Wednesday, October 31, 2007
The orthodontist Dr. Rathenow specialises in early diagnosis and correction of children’s defective jaws and teeth. To promote this service, specially designed pacifiers were handed out to parents of small children. The pacifiers gave the parents a funny, but very remarkable impression of how their kids could look with uncorrected teeth. The doctor’s business card was attached to the pacifiers. Headline business card (front): Take your kids for a check-up of their jaws and teeth before it’s too late.
Tuesday, October 30, 2007
HAVANA (Reuters) - It may not be fun anywhere but visiting the dentist in Cuba is a still unhappier prospect marked by a lack of dentists, technicians, materials and even reclining chairs, an official newspaper reported on Sunday.
In Cuba's second internal criticism in as many weeks, a team of reporters from the Juventud Rebelde, or Rebel Youth, fanned out to 22 dental clinics in various provinces only to discover the problems were the norm, not exception in the free system of more than 1,000 facilities.
"The majority of the 22 clinics lacked adequate professional and technical personnel, more than half had passed through crisis due to a lack of water, dentist chairs, materials to fill cavities, significant delays for dentures," according to the article headlined "Dentistry Dilemma."
Other problems included services provided through underground clinics -- at a price -- and patients waiting for hours in offices with little air conditioning and few toilet facilities.
Monday, October 29, 2007
This is the first study to test the concept of bacterial replacement therapy in the treatment of plaque-related periodontal disease, and analysis of the data showed, in a beagle dog model, that when beneficial bacteria were applied in periodontal pockets adjunctively after root planing, repopulation by bacteria associated with gum disease was delayed and reduced, as was the degree of inflammation, at a clinically significant level.
"While this NIDCR-funded investigation provides a proof of concept that the application of beneficial bacteria may supplement traditional methods of periodontal therapy, additional studies are needed to determine how this concept can be applied in the clinical practice of periodontology," said Wim Teughels, corresponding author and professor in the Department of Periodontology at Catholic University Leuven. "The principal investigator, Marc Quirynen, also a professor at Catholic University Leuven, and the international team behind this project are continuing investigations with a focus on testing beneficial bacteria that are both helpful and non-pathogenic to humans. We hope the current study will inspire other investigators to consider periodontal disease therapy from this novel perspective."
The Journal of Dental Research (JDR) is the official publication of the International & American Associations for Dental Research (IADR/AADR), and continues to hold the top SIF ranking of all dental journals worldwide. The IADR is a non-profit organization with more than 11,000 individual members worldwide, dedicated to: (1) advancing research and increasing knowledge to improve oral health, (2) supporting the oral health research community, and (3) facilitating the communication and application of research findings for the improvement of oral health worldwide. The AADR is the largest Division of the IADR, with more than 4,000 members in the United States.
International Association for Dental Research
Sunday, October 28, 2007
Saturday, October 27, 2007
My notebook broke about one month ago and it needed a new motherboard. It did not pay to repair my trusty Dell. So I have been waiting for the release of Max OS X Leopard. Well I finally ordered my Black Macbook today. My computing needs have been met by an old desktop with Windows XP Pro and a very old notebook running Puppy Linux. Well sometime this week I will start learning the Mac OS. It better be easy as I need the notebook for the next DTS event in El Paso on November 16th.
MRSA is a potentially deadly version of a common bacterium that causes pimples, boils, sinus infection, and, in rare cases, meningitis and blood infections. Even healthy people can carry MRSA on their skin, but it can turn deadly when it enters the bloodstream. The organism sickens more than 90,000 Americans each year and kills nearly 19,000. News of the rise in MRSA infections has been widely reported in the media and consumer advocates have called for testing all new hospital patients for MRSA. The U.S. Senate recently passed an amendment to provide funds to identify and suppress the spread of it.
OSAP has developed a page devoted to MRSA on its website at www.OSAP.org (go to Resources – click on fly out menu, then “MRSA”). This site will be constantly updated to ensure dental professionals have the information and resources necessary to ensure the safety of their patients and themselves against MRSA.
OSAP is the Organization for Safety and Asepsis Procedures. Founded in 1984, the non-profit association is dentistry's premier resource for infection control and safety information. Through its publications, courses, website, and worldwide collaborations, OSAP and the tax-exempt OSAP Foundation support education, research, service, and policy development to promote safety and the control of infectious diseases in dental healthcare settings worldwide.
Friday, October 26, 2007
Today the new Apple OS Leopard will be released. Read and view more on the Apple web site. Cost is $129. A much better OS and deal then Windows Vista.
Also the new version of Ubuntu Linux 7.10 is ready for download. I have tried the new version and it worked fine. You can try it out (the software is free) without loading it by using the Live CD.
Thursday, October 25, 2007
We wish all the best to those in Southern California and my the winds die down, the fires be extinguished and life return to normal as soon as possible.
Wednesday, October 24, 2007
Print ISSN: 0020-6539
Volume: 57 | Issue: 5_supp
Cover date: October 10, 2007
Regular tooth brushing is considered an excellent preventive measure for oral plaque control. Yet despite over one hundred years of effort by dental professionals, levels of tooth brushing remain distressingly low. Evidence from a variety of studies suggests that tooth brushing is commonly performed in a regularised, automatic (i.e., routine) manner. Here it is argued a routine can be considered a recurring sequence of behaviours produced in conjunction with a script (or group of behaviours hierarchically represented in memory), and controlled as a unit or ‘chunk’. A robust model of routine behaviour is presented, the Norman-Shallice-Cooper model, which is then applied to the example of tooth brushing be-haviour, suggesting a variety of strategies for introducing tooth brushing into daily routines. Empirical studies are also reviewed which suggest that tooth brushing practices cluster in families. This clustering, together with the persistence of the practice throughout life, is consistent with the hypothesis that tooth brushing typically occurs within family-based traditions. Clinical and public health efforts in dentistry can therefore potentially be made more effective by taking into consideration how routines are created and then maintained within family or school environments.
Tuesday, October 23, 2007
Cellphones and Brain Cancer: A Doctor Weighs In
From today’s mailbag, another response to Pogue’s Imponderables. I’m sure some readers still won’t be convinced–that’s why it’s an imponderable–but the two medical studies cited here are pretty darned convincing to me. (p.s… The excerpts from the studies are filled with medical jargon; I added the boldface formatting.)
One of Pogue’s imponderables was, “Do cell phones cause brain cancer?”
As a physician who has followed the published medical literature on this, I can tell you that the answer is no.
One problem is that as humans, when something bad happens to us, we blame something. So, if I get brain cancer — a very rare event indeed — I will blame using a cell phone. However, the reality is that I would have gotten brain cancer had I not used cell phones, if I in fact got brain cancer. The studies confirming that cell phones do not cause brain cancer examine the rate of brain cancer among a population of cell phone users and compare the rates to a population of non-users. Technically, a case-control study is often done.
Here are abstracts from 2 good scientific studies looking at the very question you posed.
You can read the abstracts by jumping to Pogues Blog
Monday, October 22, 2007
Cellphone carriers tell us what phones we can use, and what software and services can be offered on those phones. Consumers deserve better.
By WALTER S. MOSSBERG
October 22, 2007
Suppose you own a Dell computer, and you decide to replace it with a Sony. You don't have to get the permission of your Internet service provider to do so, or even tell the provider about it. You can just pack up the old machine and set up the new one.
Now, suppose your new computer came with a particular Web browser or online music service, but you'd prefer a different one. You can just download and install the new software, and uninstall the old one. You can sign up for a new music service and cancel the old one. And, once again, you don't need to even notify your Internet provider, let alone seek its permission.
Oh, and the developers of such computers, software and services can offer you their products directly, without going through the Internet provider, without getting the provider's approval, and without giving the provider a penny. The Internet provider gets paid simply for its contribution to the mix: providing your Internet connection. But, for all practical purposes, it doesn't control what is connected to the network, or carried over the network.
So, it's intolerable that the same country that produced all this has trapped its citizens in a backward, stifling system when it comes to the next great technology platform, the cellphone.
Read the rest on the Wall Street Journal site (video too)!
Sunday, October 21, 2007
Detection of Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in Extirpated Heart Valve and Atheromatous Plaque Specimens
Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Detection of Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in Extirpated Heart Valve and Atheromatous Plaque Specimens
Kazuhiko Nakano,1 Hiroaki Inaba,2 Ryota Nomura,1 Hirotoshi Nemoto,1 Munehiro Takeda,3 Hideo Yoshioka,3 Hajime Matsue,4 Toshiki Takahashi,4 Kazuhiro Taniguchi,4 Atsuo Amano,2 and Takashi Ooshima1*
Departments of Pediatric Dentistry,1 Oral Frontier Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan,2 Dentistry and Oral Surgery,3 Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka Rosai Hospital, 1179-3 Nagasane-cho, Sakai, Osaka 591-0825, Japan4
Received 20 February 2006/ Returned for modification 19 April 2006/ Accepted 15 July 2006
The involvement of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases has been the focus of attention in many studies, and several periodontal pathogens have been detected in diseased cardiovascular lesions, suggesting relationships between oral microorganisms and cardiovascular diseases. However, no information is available regarding the involvement of cariogenic pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans. The presence of oral streptococcal species and periodontitis-related bacteria in 35 heart valve and 27 atheromatous plaque clinical specimens, as well as 32 dental plaque specimens from the same subjects, was analyzed using a PCR method. Furthermore, broad-range PCR with DNA sequencing analysis was employed to identify the bacterial species in those samples. Streptococcus mutans was frequently detected in the heart valve (69%) and atheromatous plaque (74%) specimens, while other bacterial species, including those related to periodontitis, were detected with much lower frequencies. The bacterial composition in cardiovascular tissues was found to be markedly distinct from that in dental plaque, with only a limited number of species, including S. mutans, in the cardiovascular regions shown to have possibly originated from the oral cavity. Semiquantitative assay results revealed that S. mutans was detected in significant quantities in the heart valve (40%) and atheromatous plaque (48%) specimens, whereas the quantities of all other tested bacterial species, including several related to periodontitis, were negligible in the cardiovascular samples. These results indicate that S. mutans is a possible causative agent of cardiovascular disease.
Saturday, October 20, 2007
Sleep disordered breathing is a term which includes simple snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Simple snoring is a common complaint affecting 45% of adults occasionally and 25% of adults habitually and is a sign of upper airway obstruction. Snoring has also been identified as a possible risk factor for hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. The role of dentistry in sleep disorders is becoming more significant, especially in co-managing patients with simple snoring and mild to moderate OSA. The practicing dental professional has the opportunity to assist patients at a variety of levels, starting with the recognition of a sleep-related disorder, referring patients to a physician for evaluation, and assisting in the management of sleep disorders. Obesity is the main predisposing factor for OSA. In nonobese patients, craniofacial anomalies like micrognathia and retrognathia may also predispose to OSA. Diagnosis of OSA is made on the basis of the history and physical examination and investigations such as polysomnography, limited channel testing, split-night testing, and oximetry. Nocturnal attended polysomnography, which requires an overnight stay in a sleep facility, is the standard diagnostic modality in determining if a patient has OSA. As far as treatment is concerned, the less invasive procedures are to be preferred to the more invasive options. The first and simplest option would be behavior modification, followed by insertion of oral devices suited to the patient, especially in those with mild to moderate OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and surgical options are chosen for patients with moderate to severe OSA. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AAOSM) has recommended oral appliances for use in patients with primary snoring and mild to moderate OSA. It can also be used in patients with a lesser degree of oxygen saturation, relatively less day time sleepiness, lower frequency of apnea, those who are intolerant to CPAP, or those who refuse surgery. Oral appliances improve the blood oxygen saturation levels as they relieve apnea in 20-75% of patients. They reduce the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by 50% or to < 10 events per h. Oral appliances also reduce the AHI to normal in 50-60% patients.
Friday, October 19, 2007
Keeping pearly whites pearly and white could do as much damage as the
acidic, sugary foods that turn them that fine shade of ecru.
Tooth enamel is under constant siege whether it’s the Coke with lunch,
pickle that came with the sandwich, aggressive attempts to brush teeth
clean or chemical whiteners.
Two dentists from the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in
Baltimore City have a solution: A calcium-phosphorus additive that’s
being marketed in toothpaste, floss and various dental hygiene
Called NovaMin, the additive promotes regrowth of tooth enamel and won
creators Gary Hack and Leonard Litkowski their school’s Entrepreneurs
of the Year honors.
“It’s an absolutely natural product,” Hack said.
In addition to rebuilding enamel, “what it also does is desensitize
the tooth to hot and cold. ... We’re also seeing very good results in
reduction of gingival bleeding and gum disease,” he said.
While fluoride, which has been in toothpaste and drinking water for
more than 50 years, builds a protective shell over teeth, NovaMin
rebuilds enamel from the ground up.
“With our current diets being high in fruit juices and other
high-acidic foods, we’re seeing a lot of deterioration of enamel,”
After a while the surface is filled with microscopic pits, “like Swiss
cheese,” he said.
Fruit, yogurt, citrus and soft drinks, taken too often, can cause
permanent damage to teeth, according to the Academy of General
Called tooth erosion, this damage is more common today than it was
even five years ago.
As the damage progresses, the underlying material, called dentin,
becomes more visible, leaving a yellowed look.
Put down the peroxide whitening strip, though, Hack said. “Because
it’s rebuilding the enamel, NovaMin also whitens teeth.”
Hack and Litkowski’s work has generated 35 U.S. and international
patents, according to the Maryland School of Dentistry.
UMB dental professors turn research into business
Dr. Gary Hack, an associate professor at the UMB Dental School, was
honored as one of the school’s entrepreneurs of the year for his work
on NovaMin, an ingredient that re-mineralizes tooth structure and
relieves sensitivity. – Andrew Cannarsa, The Examiner
Current rank: Not ranked
Two University of Maryland, Baltimore dental professors learned
there’s no limit to what people will pay for a healthy, shiny smile.
“Your teeth are very important, from a cosmetic standpoint,” said Dr.
Gary Hack, a UMB dental professor. “We’re seeing tremendous growth in
the cosmetic industry.”
Hack and fellow UMB dental professor Dr. Leonard Litkowski hope their
tooth-care invention will take a bite out of the expanding oral health
care industry — a global pie totaling $30 billion in annual revenues.
Hack and Litkowski invented an ingredient for toothpaste and other
dental products — called NovaMin — that relieves tooth sensitivity,
re-mineralizes tooth structure, whitens teeth and enhances overall
NovaMin Technology Inc., based in Alachua, Fla., purchased the
technology and markets dental products with the substance to dental
offices and companies around the world. Worldwide sales of NovaMin
have thus far generated more than $3 million.
“Our view is, this represents a fundamental advance in tooth and oral
care,” said Randy Scott, president and CEO of NovaMin Technology. “Our
expectation is, it will become something people expect in oral and
Hack and Litkowski began developing the technology 12 years ago, as
Hack researched tooth sensitivity and Litkowski studied bone
regeneration. The two professors collaborated to create NovaMin.
For their research, development and marketing of NovaMin, Hack and
Litkowski were recently named UMB’s Entrepreneurs of the Year.
“A lot of our professors have been encouraged to take their technology
to the market,” Hack said.
The technology has led to 35 patents worldwide, while more than 30
additional patents are pending approval. UMB has received more than
$290,000 from licenses for NovaMin.
“When we first started out, both of us were pretty naive,” Litkowski
said. “It was a lot of research and development, but I don’t think we
had any idea what the business side of it was.”
NovaMin appears to be gaining momentum in international markets,
including Europe and Asia, Hack said. The focus now shifts to bringing
the technology to the United States, in dental offices and eventually
retail outlets, Litkowski said.
Thursday, October 18, 2007
The management of anticoagulated patients requiring dental extraction: a cross-sectional survey of oral and maxillofacial surgeons and hematologists
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 5 (10), 2157–2159.
MedWire News: Warfarin treatment is inappropriately stopped before dental extraction by a significant proportion of hematologists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMS), potentially placing patients at increased risk of thromboembolic complications, conclude Canadian researchers.
An assessment of risks is an essential part of the management of patients receiving long-term oral anticoagulation who require dental extraction, balancing the risk of procedure-related bleeding if anticoagulants are continued against the thromboembolic risk if they are stopped.
Noting that, despite consensus guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians saying that anticoagulant therapy should be continued, the drugs are routinely discontinued, the researchers sent a survey on attitudes towards warfarin management in patients requiring dental extraction to 168 OMS and 123 hematologists.
In all, 137 surveys were returned, yielding 82 eligible responses from OMS and 55 from hematologists. Of the OMS that responded, 75.6% were community based and had an average of 24 years in clinical practice, while 76.4% of hematologists were from academic or combined academic and community practice and had an average of 13 years in clinical practice.
Among hematologists, 70% of practitioners discontinued warfarin at least 50% of the time for an average of 4.4 days prior to dental extraction, aiming for an international normalized ratio (INR) of no more than 2.5. Bridging anticoagulation prior to the procedure was used by 72% of hematologists.
In comparison, 37% of OMS discontinued warfarin at least 50% of the time for an average of 3.2 days prior to the procedure, aiming for an INR of no more than 3.0. In addition, 41% of OMS used bridging anticoagulation, Wendy Lim and colleagues, from McMaster University in Ontario, write.
OMS were found to consistently rate the thombrotic risk higher than did hematologists in all bleeding scenarios apart from those involving the highest thrombotic risk. OMS rated bleeding risks lower than did hematologists, but only for patients with the highest bleeding risk.
In scenarios that combined both bleeding and thrombotic risks, rates of discontinuation of warfarin was approximately 50% higher in hematologists than in OMS. For patients with high thrombotic risk and low bleeding risk, warfarin was discontinued by 19% of OMS and 35% of hematologists.
The team concludes in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: "Increasing education and awareness among hematologists and OMS that dental extraction does not require routine anticoagulant discontinuation is a priority that may minimize patient risk."
Wednesday, October 17, 2007
What is WOWIO?
WOWIO is a new kind of online bookstore that enables readers to download ebooks for free, using commercial sponsorships to compensate authors and publishers. Readers get free ebooks. Sponsors get a powerful new channel to communicate their message to precisely the people they want to reach. Publishers get a new means of distributing their books, expanding their readership, and monetizing their intellectual property.
So click on the link and give it a try. All books are in Adobe Acrobat format.
Tuesday, October 16, 2007
These dirty little secrets are not the only thing your toothbrush is hiding, according to the same survey, which shows that half of Americans would share their toothbrush with others, including a family member, spouse/partner or friend. What’s more, one out of 20 males (five percent) would share it with a co-worker if needed!
“Patients who visit my practice are making an investment in their oral health, and there is no better way to protect that investment than good home care,” said Dr. Bill Dorfman, the featured aesthetic dentist on ABC’s show, “Extreme Makeover.” “Good home care extends beyond just the toothbrush you use; it’s also about how you safeguard your toothbrush from bacteria.”
Now Americans can clean up their toothbrush hygiene. Philips Sonicare, the number-one power toothbrush brand recommended by dental professionals, is expanding its product portfolio to include a UV Sanitizer that kills up to 99 percent of certain bacteria on the brush head. Specially engineered UV Clean technology sanitizes power toothbrush heads in just 10 minutes, safeguarding against bacteria. The stand-alone unit works with Philips Sonicare brush heads as well as with other premium power toothbrush brands.
Along with its new, stand-alone UV Sanitizer, Philips Sonicare is also introducing FlexCare, its most advanced toothbrush ever and the only power toothbrush to come with an integrated UV Sanitizer charger base. FlexCare is clinically proven to remove more plaque than any other premium power toothbrush and features personalized care settings so users can select the brushing program that is best for them.
To expose the oral care secrets Americans are keeping, Philips Sonicare is bringing tooth brushing to the streets in major cities across the U.S., including San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, Minneapolis, Dallas and Philadelphia. Fully functioning sinks will be popping up on busy streets throughout the cities where brushers will be demonstrating the proper use and benefits of the new Philips Sonicare FlexCare toothbrush.
Additional Insights from National Philips Sonicare Survey:
— Does the thought of sharing your toothbrush with another person make
— Not so for more than four in 10 (44 percent) of Americans who
stated they would lend their toothbrush to their spouse, and eight
percent would share it with a friend!
— Hot water is not always the solution, especially when it comes to
sanitizing one’s toothbrush. Research has suggested that even after
being rinsed visibly clean, toothbrushes can remain contaminated with
potentially harmful bacteria.(1)
— 65 percent of those surveyed believe rinsing their toothbrush with
hot water will do the trick and kill the bacteria on their
Doctor Knows Best
— Despite what the professionals ordered, Americans appear to be
speeding through their daily brushing regimen.
— 32 percent of men and women admit to brushing their teeth less then
the full two minutes recommended by dental professionals, though 92
percent believe that the overall health of one’s teeth, gums and
mouth could have an effect on overall physical health.
The Philips Sonicare brand is a leader in oral health care with more than 15 million users worldwide. It is the number-one power toothbrush brand recommended by U.S. dental professionals.
Monday, October 15, 2007
Latest version features nine hours of content; return of Invisalign programming
ST. PAUL, Minn. – (Oct. 15, 2007) – Offering over 280 multimedia presentations and 21 different topics, Patterson Dental Supply, Inc. introduces CAESY Enterprise 6.0, the newest version of server-based patient education software. The debut of CAESY Enterprise 6.0 features nine hours of content, including two hours of Smile Channel video content and seven hours of CAESY multimedia presentations, making it the most comprehensive, up-to-date choice for patient education. CAESY Enterprise 6.0 offers smooth controls for enhanced navigation and bright, new graphics for both CAESY and Smile Channel, the reception area program included with CAESY Enterprise.
The Smile Channel video loop now features six new and 14 updated presentation topics, as well as the return of Invisalign programming. Users also can now customize the presentation playlist for specific patients in the waiting room. Plus, the latest edition of Smile Channel features the original programs, Hayley, featuring educational interviews in a talk show format; and Science in Dentistry, which answers patient questions and delivers valuable health information.
“With a diverse assortment of dynamic presentations and streamlined menus, CAESY Enterprise 6.0 enables practices to conveniently educate and entertain patients – from the front office to the operatory and beyond,” says Michelle Anderson, Patterson Technology marketing manager.
CAESY Enterprise 6.0 integrates seamlessly with Patterson EagleSoft clinical and practice management software, making them an excellent combination for practices interested in optimizing the latest in technology to promote a well-rounded patient experience. Additionally, CAESY Enterprise 6.0 can serve as a marketing tool by enabling users to produce practice-branded CDs to attract new patients and garner referrals from the existing patient base.
CAESY Education Systems has been dentistry’s premier developer of leading-edge patient education technology and content since 1993. CAESY was acquired by Patterson Dental Supply, Inc. in May 2004. The award-winning multimedia information on preventive, restorative and esthetic treatment options helps dental practices worldwide educate their patients and grow their practices. The CAESY content is distributed via video and computer networks or DVD players throughout the clinical and reception areas of the dental practice. The family of products includes CAESY DVD, Smile Channel DVD, CAESY Printables, CAESY Pediatrics, and CAESY Enterprise, which includes CAESY, Smile Channel and ShowCase. For more information, visit www.caesy.com or call 1-800-294-8504.
Falling numbers of NHS dentists are forcing many patients to go without treatment or even try pulling out their own teeth, a study found.
Almost a fifth (19%) of those questioned in the biggest patient survey of its kind revealed that they had missed out on dental work they needed because of the cost.
The research, involving more than 5,000 patients in England, also found that as many as 6% had even resorted to treating themselves because they could not find a dentist.
Patients interviewed spoke of taking out their own teeth or fixing broken crowns with glue. One person questioned in Lancashire spoke of carrying out 14 separate extractions with pliers. Meanwhile, one of those conducting the research at a shopping centre in Liverpool met three separate people in one morning who had pulled out teeth themselves.
Almost three-fifths (58%) of dentists themselves said new contracts brought in last year had made the quality of care worse and as many as 84% thought the changes had failed to make it easier for patients to get an appointment.
The stark findings came in research carried out by the members of England's Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) Forums - special feedback bodies covering every NHS trust in the country.
A total of 78% of patients from private practices polled said they were there either because their dentist had stopped taking NHS patients or that they could not find an NHS clinic, with only 15% saying it was for better treatment. Of those who said they were not registered with a dentist at all, 29% said they had left their previous one when they went private.
Two out of five (42%) of all patients revealed they had no idea how to get emergency dental treatment out of office hours, and more than half (54%) did not understand how charges worked.
Some of the starkest findings in the study were the views of dentists themselves. Almost half (45%) said their surgery was no longer taking NHS patients with 42% spending less than 75% of their time on them. And four out of 10 (41%) felt they had an "excessive" workload with 29% saying their clinic had problems recruiting or retaining dentists.
Sharon Grant, chair of the Commission for Patient and Public Involvement in Health, which set up the forums, said: "These findings indicate that the NHS dental system is letting many patients down very badly. It appears many are being forced to go private because they don't want to lose their current trusted and respected dentist or because they just can't find a local NHS dentist."
Saturday, October 13, 2007
Mosby's Dental Drug Reference contains 870 clear and concise monographs on dosing, usage, contraindications, pregnancy risks, mechanism of action, adverse effects, vital classifications, and precautions for each drug, as well as special considerations specific to dentistry. Additionally, this 8th edition includes brand new drugs that have just recently been approved by the FDA. Mosby's Dental Drug Reference also counsels dentists on drugs that are most clinically significant and includes all dentistry related interactions that could potentially occur. The purpose of this reference is to serve as a quick and logical resource to assist dentists in making clinical decisions and consultations.
Information is arranged in a user-friendly format that can be utilized at-a-glance and the portable pocket size of the reference provides office and travel versatility. In order to improve patient communication, Mosby's Dental Drug Reference is accompanied by a CD containing full color illustrations of drug-related pathologic conditions, a pill atlas, a glossary of terms, and patient handouts in both English and Spanish. The appendices include abbreviations, anesthetics, combination products, controlled substances, disorders and conditions, therapeutic management of oral lesions, drugs of abuse, drug use in pediatric dentistry, and herbal and non-herbal remedies.
To maintain the most current information, a supplemental website updated with relative information released post-publication is available through Evolve Resources (http://evolve.elsevier.com). Mosby's Dental Drug Reference is currently available at http://elsevierhealth.com.
Friday, October 12, 2007
Researchers from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and College of Dentistry in Lexington, studied data from 144 participants in a study of aging and Alzheimer’s disease among Catholic sisters of the School Sisters of Notre Dame.
The researchers used dental records and results of annual cognitive examinations to study participants from the order’s Milwaukee province who were between the ages of 75- and 98-years-old.
“Of the participants who did not have dementia at the first examination, those with few teeth (zero to nine) had an increased risk of developing dementia during the study compared with those who had 10 or more teeth,” the authors wrote in their study.
Researchers said there could be several reasons for the association between tooth loss and dementia. For one, not only periodontal disease, but also early-life nutritional deficiencies, infections or chronic diseases may result simultaneously in tooth loss and damage to the brain, they said.
Here is a great site if your in the need of "Accurate" flight information. Since I am on the road quite a bit this web site gives flight status and airport delays. I have tried other sites including the airlines and find this one the best. Give it a look and sign up for the updates to your cell phone.
Thursday, October 11, 2007
Boom Times for Dentists, but Not for Teeth
By ALEX BERENSON
For American dentists, times have never been better.
The same cannot be said for Americans’ teeth.
With dentists’ fees rising far faster than inflation and more than 100
million people lacking dental insurance, the percentage of Americans
with untreated cavities began rising this decade, reversing a
half-century trend of improvement in dental health.
Previously unreleased figures from the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention show that in 2003 and 2004, the most recent years with data
available, 27 percent of children and 29 percent of adults had
cavities going untreated. The level of untreated decay was the highest
since the late 1980s and significantly higher than that found in a
survey from 1999 to 2002.
Despite the rise in dental problems, state boards of dentists and the
American Dental Association, the main lobbying group for dentists,
have fought efforts to use dental hygienists and other non-dentists to
provide basic care to people who do not have access to dentists.
For middle-class and wealthy Americans, straight white teeth are still
a virtual birthright. And dentists say that a majority of people in
this country receive high-quality care.
But many poor and lower-middle-class families do not receive adequate
care, in part because most dentists want customers who can pay cash or
have private insurance, and they do not accept Medicaid patients. As a
result, publicly supported dental clinics have months-long waiting
lists even for people who need major surgery for decayed teeth. At the
pediatric clinic managed by the state-supported University of Florida
dental school, for example, low-income children must wait six months
In some cases, the results of poor dental care have been deadly. A
child in Mississippi and another in Maryland died this year from
infections caused by decayed teeth.
The dental profession’s critics — who include public health experts,
some physicians and even some dental school professors — say that too
many dentists are focused more on money than medicine.
“Most dentists consider themselves to be in the business of dentistry
rather than the practice of dentistry,” said Dr. David A. Nash, a
professor of pediatric dentistry at the University of Kentucky. “I’m a
cynic about my profession, but the data are there. It’s embarrassing.”
A defender of the profession is Dr. Terry D. Dickinson, a practicing
dentist who is also the executive director of the Virginia Dental
Association. He says he believes that dentists are charitable and want
to provide care to poor patients. But dentists are also in business;
they must pay rent and employee salaries, and they deserve fair fees,
“Charity is not a health care system,” Dr. Dickinson said.
Dentists, of course, are no more obligated to serve the poor than are
lawyers or accountants. But the issue from a public health standpoint,
the critics say, is that even as so many patients go untreated,
business is booming for most dentists. They are making more money
while working shorter hours, on average, even as the nation’s number
of dentists, per person, has declined.
The lack of dental care is not restricted to the poor and their
children, the data shows. Experts on oral health say about 100 million
Americans — including many adults who work and have incomes well above
the poverty line — are without access to care.
A federal survey shows that 27 percent of adults without insurance saw
a dentist in 2004, down from 29 percent in 1996, when dental fees were
significantly lower, even after adjusting for inflation. For adults
with private insurance, the rate was virtually unchanged, at 57
percent, up from 56 percent. Since 1990, the number of dentists in the
United States has been roughly flat, about 150,000 to 160,000, while
the population has risen about 22 percent. In addition, more dentists
are working part time.
Partly as a result, dental fees have risen much faster than inflation.
In real dollars, the cost of the average dental procedure rose 25
percent from 1996 to 2004. The average American adult patient now
spends roughly $600 annually on dental care, with insurance picking up
about half the tab.
Dentists’ incomes have grown faster than that of the typical American
and the incomes of medical doctors. Formerly poor relations to
physicians, American dentists in general practice made an average
salary of $185,000 in 2004, the most recent data available. That
figure is similar to what non-specialist doctors make, but dentists
work far fewer hours. Dental surgeons and orthodontists average more
than $300,000 annually.
“Dentists make more than doctors,” said Morris M. Kleiner, a
University of Minnesota economist. “If I had a kid going into the
sciences, I’d tell them to become a dentist.”
But despite the allure of rising salaries, the shortage of dentists
will almost certainly worsen, because the nation has fewer dental
schools and fewer dentists in training than a generation ago. After
peaking at 5,750 in 1982, the number of dental school graduates fell
to 4,440 in 2003, as several big dental schools closed their doors.
The average dentist is now 49 years old, according to the American
Dental Association, and for at least the next decade retiring dentists
will probably outnumber new ones.
Even if more students wanted to enter the profession, states are not
moving aggressively to expand dental schools or open new ones.
Training dentists is expensive, because dental schools must provide
hands-on training — unlike medical schools, which send doctors to
hospitals for training after they graduate. Hospitals receive federal
subsidies for the training they provide to medical interns and
residents, but the equivalent system does not really exist in
Meanwhile, the A.D.A. does not support opening new dental schools or
otherwise increasing the number of dentists. The association says it
sees no nationwide shortage of dentists, though it acknowledges a
shortage in rural areas. Dentists note that in the early 1980s, when
dental schools were graduating nearly twice as many dentists relative
to the overall size of the population as they are now, some dentists
struggled to keep their practices afloat.
Dr. Kathleen Roth, president of the A.D.A., said that the association
is working to increase Medicaid’s reimbursement rates to make it more
cost-effective for dentists to treat low-income patients. While
Medicaid is supposed to cover both basic care and emergency procedures
for children, the program will pay only for emergency procedures — not
basic care — for adults in most states.
“Access to dental care, especially for children, has been a growing
problem for 10 years,” Dr. Roth said. “State and federal programs have
decreased the amount of dollars available.”
Besides calling for higher Medicaid reimbursement, Dr. Roth said, the
association supports putting health aides with basic dental training
into public schools. The aides would help get appointments for
children who need them and teach children basic habits like brushing
But critics say the association’s plans would do little to solve the
basic problem of access to care. Moreover, even in states that have
raised Medicaid payments, most dentists still do not accept Medicaid
patients. Virginia, for example, overhauled its Medicaid program in
2005, raising rates 30 percent. But only about 25 percent of all
Virginia dentists now accept Medicaid patients, compared with 15
percent before the changes.
Some dentists do not accept Medicaid patients because they frequently
miss appointments, which means lost revenue, said Dr. L. Jackson
Brown, the former managing vice president for health policy at the
With little dental care available for poor children, pediatricians are
teaching themselves how to apply fluoride varnish on baby teeth, a
simple procedure that can prevent cavities, said Dr. Amos S. Deinard,
a pediatrician and associate professor at the University of Minnesota.
“The dentists don’t want to see these kids,” Dr. Deinard said.
Outside the United States, more than 50 countries, including some
western European nations, now allow technicians called dental
therapists to drill and fill cavities, usually in children.
Proponents of the therapists say their training is comparable to the
practical training that dentists receive, but without the general
medical training dentists get. Studies of the work performed by the
therapists have concluded that it is comparable to, and in some cases
better than, that of fully trained dentists.
Dr. Frank Catalanotto, a professor of community dentistry at the
University of Florida, said dental therapists would be a
cost-effective way to provide basic care to children and some adults
who could not otherwise afford treatment.
But state boards of dentistry have blocked dental therapists from
working, arguing that only dentists should be allowed to drill teeth,
because it is an “irreversible surgical procedure” and can lead to
serious complications like infections or nerve damage. Children of
Alaska Natives in remote areas have high rates of cavities and
essentially no access to dentists, so a coalition of tribes began a
program in 2003 to use therapists to treat native children.
“There’s never been a dentist in these rural areas,” said Dr. Ron
Nagel, a dentist who helped create the Alaska program and is a
consultant for the tribal coalition.
But the American Dental Association fought the program almost as soon
as it began, dropping its effort only in July, after a state judge
ruled in favor of the program. Still, the group continues to oppose
letting dental therapists practice anywhere in the continental United
“What we’re extremely uncomfortable with is that they need to drill
teeth and sometimes extract teeth,” said Dr. Roth, the association’s
president. Use of therapists would create a two-tier system where some
people have access to dentists, while others must settle for
less-qualified practitioners, she said.
Dr. Caswell A. Evans, a dentist and associate dean at the University
of Illinois-Chicago, said dentists must stop fighting efforts to
expand care to patients they are not currently treating. The system is
failing many patients, he said.
“Right now we have a double standard of care,” Dr. Evans said. “Some
people can get it and some people can’t.”
Wednesday, October 10, 2007
In keeping with its objectives of commercializing novel technology for application in dentistry, Lantis is currently reviewing technologies that will result in products that meet its selection criteria -- large market potential, competitive edge and exclusivity.
Lantis' President and CEO, Stan Baron said, "We see a number of areas in dentistry where, by employing advanced technology, treatment modalities could be significantly upgraded. In keeping with our objectives we will ensure that these modalities are accessible to the majority of dentists so that the majority of patients will enjoy the benefits of the advanced level of treatment made possible by the application of technology in dentistry."
Lantis is currently developing its OCT Dental Imaging System(tm) which is in Phase 2 development with clinical units expected to be in use by the end of 2007. Unlike x-ray, OCT emits no harmful radiation as it employs safe, high-intensity light. The OCT diagnostic imaging system, with a resolution of up to 10 times x-ray, will significantly upgrade the dentist's ability to view and evaluate dental tissue for early detection of decay and microstructural defects. Early detection enables early treatment, meaning less trauma, less cost, less time and a higher standard of patient care. Market introduction is targeted for the third quarter of 2008.
Baron went on to say, "The worldwide dental market consists of at least 200,000 offices that could buy technology advanced equipment for diagnosis and treatment. This market is so large that even a low 5-10% penetration of this market means considerable sales and profits for Lantis Laser."
Tuesday, October 09, 2007
Here is a neat PC that can be attached to the back of an LCD display via the VESA mount.
• 1.0GHz VIA C7 or 1.5GHz VIA Eden ULV processor
• Ultra low power VIA CX700M2 system media processor
• Up to 1GB of DDR2 system memory
• A 2.5" HDD
• Gigabit Ethernet port and optional Wireless 802.11b/g module
• DVI-D, D-Sub and S-Video TV-out
No idea on cost or availability yet but an interesting idea.
Monday, October 08, 2007
Competition in dental services is restricted and discouraged by an outdated system of regulation and by rules imposed by dentists, a consumer watchdog said.
The Competition Authority has made a number of recommendations to free-up the market and reduce costs, including informing consumers of prices and increasing the number of practitioners nationwide.
Bill Prasifka, Chairperson of the Competition Authority, said: “Consumers are paying too much for dental services in Ireland.
“This is not surprising given the rules that are currently in place.
“Consumers are in the dark when it comes to shopping around for a dentist.
“Why shouldn’t dentists advertise and compete on the same terms as any other business?
“The Competition Authority is calling for significant reform which places the interests of consumers before those of the profession,” he said.
The organisation said the regulatory system governing dental services in Ireland is urgently in need of reform.
Practitioners are not allowed to advertise their prices, offer discounts or canvass for each other’s customers, the authority highlighted in its final report on competition in dental services.
These restrictions stem from the Dentists Act 1985 and from the rules of the Dental Council, which the Competition Authority said is largely composed of dentists.
It also found the number of dentists and orthodontists being trained in Ireland has not kept pace with growing demand.
The body has set out 12 recommendations to free-up the market and improve competition.
These include ensuring patients are informed of the dental service prices, are aware of their entitlements and that a sufficient supply of dentists and orthodontists is rolled out across the country.
While almost 80% of people in the country are entitled to a free dental exam and clean annually, only 44% visit a dentist each year.
“The recommendations are designed to promote and enhance competition in dental services so that consumers get value for money while at the same time their health and safety is protected,” Mr Prasifka said.
Sunday, October 07, 2007
Although this information has been available to the public for years through the ADA Web site (http://www.ada.org/) and other outlets, the association wants to ensure its availability to all dentists and their patients in a consistent, comprehensive, easy-to-understand format.
The ADA particularly wants patients to have accurate information about dental amalgam, a silver-colored alloy made from mercury, silver, copper and tin that dentists have used for generations to fill decayed teeth. Once the most commonly used filling material, it has been surpassed in popularity by tooth-colored composites. It nevertheless remains a safe and valued treatment option for some patients, particularly those needing large fillings in back teeth or who have special needs.
Despite a wealth of scientific evidence supporting the continued availability of amalgam as a safe and effective treatment option, both the mainstream media and the Internet frequently carry confusing and incorrect information about amalgam. The ADA hopes, through production of this brochure, to provide all dentists and their patients with scientifically accurate information about dental materials to aid them in making informed treatment choices.
Saturday, October 06, 2007
Using the STA System to Produce Profound Anesthesia
Integrating Laser Technology into a General Dental Practice
Dental Economics August 2007 (article available online)
I have been busy writing articles recently.
Patient reminder communciations: An online approach
Wednesday, October 3, 2007
Oct. 3 (HealthDay News) -- A visit to the dentist could one day involve no pain and no numbness, Harvard researchers report.
In experiments with rats, the scientists combined capsaicin -- the ingredient that makes chili peppers hot -- and a drug called QX-314. This combination blocked pain-sensing neurons without the side effects of numbness or paralysis that typically accompany current pain relievers.
"We found a way to target local anesthetics to block only pain fibers," said lead researcher Dr. Clifford Woolf, the Richard Kitz Chair of Anesthesia Research at Harvard Medical School. "At present, any standard local anesthetic blocks pain fibers and fibers that produce numbness and paralysis. We have managed to block pain fibers without the numbness or paralysis."
QX-314 is a derivative of the lidocaine, a common local anesthetic. But QX-314 alone isn't able to get into cells to block electrical activity, and thus pain. When capsaicin is added, it opens the cell membranes of pain-sensing neurons and lets QX-314 into the cell.
One expert thinks the discovery could one day be used to treat some types of chronic pain.
Ways of suppressing localized pain haven't improved much since the advent of aspirin, explained Edwin W. McCleskey, scientific officer at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and author of an accompanying journal editorial.
"It's basically aspirin and morphine," he said. "That's why a new strategy is big news."
"This has only been done in rats, so it is unclear that it is going to work on humans," McCleskey noted.
In the study, Woolf's team found that the combination of capsaicin and QX-314 blocked pain-sensing neurons without affecting other nerve cells.
In additional experiments, the researchers injected the drugs into the paws of rats and found that the animals could tolerate more heat than usual. They also tried the drug combination on the nerve that runs down the rat's hind leg. These rats did not show any signs of pain, and five of the six moved and behaved normally. This showed that the drugs could block pain without affecting the nerves that control movement.
Woolf noted that this type of anesthetic could make dental visits easier. "Someone going to the dentist would be able to have a dental procedure without numbness," he said.
The anesthetic also could be used during childbirth. "The woman would feel something, but not pain," Woolf said. "More importantly, she would be able to walk instead of being paralyzed for some time, and there wouldn't be a reduction in blood pressure, which is a major reason why after an epidural people have to be monitored and kept flat," he said.
A problem with the treatment is that the capsaicin can cause burning sensations until the QX-314 takes effect. But giving QX-314 about 10 minutes before the capsaicin minimizes this problem, Woolf noted.
The researchers are looking for ways to prevent the burning sensations. "We need to get a formulation that is as effective in humans as it was in the animals," Woolf said.
They are also looking for ways to prolong the pain relief and at the possibility of developing a pill instead of using injections, Woolf said.
McCleskey thinks this new method of pain control could treat conditions such as sciatica.
"There, you know the nerve that is causing pain, and if you could inject this cocktail into that nerve you could just eliminate pain," he said. "That would be huge."
Copyright (c) 2007 ScoutNews, LLC. All rights reserved.
Friday, October 05, 2007
The latest version of the Imaging Sciences i-CAT boasts a sleek new redesign and enhanced features for faster and even more accurate treatment planning and surgical success
Hatfield, Pa.—Oct. 3, 2007— Imaging Sciences International, the global leader in advanced dental and maxillofacial radiography products, today announced the Next Generation i-CAT®, the leader in Cone Beam 3-D dental imaging, is now available for sale and installation. The latest i-CAT® version offers the industry’s fastest scan times at 5, 8.5, and 26 seconds, with standard reconstruction taking less than 30 seconds, providing dentists with near-instant data for the best possible patient diagnosis, treatment, and surgical predictability. Other brand-new features include a rotating, Amorphous Silicon Flat Panel Sensor for capturing both small and Extended Fields of View with superior accuracy, data reliability, and control over radiation dosage.
“Imaging Sciences International set the bar for Cone Beam 3-D imaging with the introduction of the i-CAT® in 2004,” says Ed Marandola, President of Imaging Sciences. “Now, the Next Generation machine has raised the bar for dental imaging and treatment planning. Forward-thinking dental practitioners have long relied on the i-CAT®’s accurate, in-depth data, while patients appreciate the comfort and convenience of the in-office scans. The latest i-CAT® continues our excellence in developing safe and effective treatment planning tools and cements our leadership position within the industry.”
This latest i-CAT® version includes several enhanced features that further improve scanning and diagnostic capabilities:
• Shorter scan and reconstruction time. The Next Generation i-CAT® offers even shorter scan times, plus the fastest reconstruction time. Scan times now take 5, 8.5, and 26 seconds, with standard scan reconstruction taking less than 30 seconds. These processes impact workflow by speeding the time to diagnosis and treatment planning. Patients also don’t have to stay still for as long, thus improving patient stability, and resulting in the most accurate images.
• Extended Field of View. The large Field of View (17cm height by 23cm diameter) creates anatomically accurate and detailed cephalometric 3-D images of the entire skull. The result: a complete orthodontic work-up of frontal and lateral cephalometric, panoramic, supernumerary, SMV, TM joint, and airway and spinal studies. The i-CAT® images also are compatible with most major orthodontic and implant planning software, and come with 3DVR™ Volume Rendering software for viewing and rotating data from all angles.
• Rotating flip-panel sensor to capture smaller Fields of View. The Amorphous Silicon Flat Panel sensor, proven to be the best available sensor technology in the industry, adjusts to capture data in two views: portrait and landscape. It has the ability to Collimate for a range of volumes (4-17cm height by 16-23cm diameter). Portrait view captures Extended Field of View data in 8.5 seconds, with less radiation to the patient. In comparison, landscape view offers full resolution and detail for smaller fields of view. This convenient feature gives dental professionals the flexibility to utilize the type of scan appropriate for their treatment. It also helps prevent unnecessary radiation exposure by offering a smaller field of view for post-procedure scans or scans of children to ensure ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) radiation doses, while still allowing the option of a detail-rich wide view when more information is needed.
• Manageable file sizes. Typical file sizes are decreased to about 50 megabytes per file, making them the smallest, most manageable file size of any vendor. This means the dentist can easily and quickly share the images with referred specialists, without worry about lengthy downloads and special viewing software.
• Sleek redesign. Always one of the smallest scanners available, the i-CAT® now boasts a clean design with smoother, rounded corners for aesthetics and ergonomics. In addition, the sturdy and stable chair/head support mechanism reduces movement, and optimizes image quality, while keeping patients comfortable in the perfected seat design.
The easy-to-use i-CAT® produces more thorough three-dimensional views of all oral and maxillofacial structures. Patients remain seated in an ‘open environment scan,’ which increases comfort, and captures the natural orientation of anatomy. Once the data is captured, it’s transferred to a computer within minutes, and displayed on an intuitive 3-D mapping tool that allows doctors and technicians to easily format and select desired ‘slices’ for immediate viewing.
The footprint of the in-office i-CAT® is just 17-square feet, and creates the 3-D images at a reduced cost to dentists and patients.
Thursday, October 04, 2007
Here is another product I saw at the ADA. Its called a "Denjector". It automates the injection process. This gun type electric dental anesthetic injector may improve your ability to administer anesthetic to a patient, can make difficult injections easier for the dentist and reduce discomfort for the patient.
The battery powered injector ensures stable anesthesia delivery through its programmed injection speeds to minimize injection discomfort for the patient. Should be around $1000 after it receives FDA approval.
Wednesday, October 03, 2007
Users will enjoy the convenience of over-the-air installation and wireless drug updates, as well as Epocrates' user-friendly navigation and authoritative content. As early as November, clinicians will be able to use the popular Epocrates drug reference on a BlackBerry device of their choice! Stay tuned to http://www.epocrates.com for the latest information on this release.
Here is a follow up to my post on the Kavo GENTLEray 980 Diode Laser. Its a compact unit that has high power and water cooling. The fiber spool and handpiece can be autoclaved. The Fiber can be mounted on both the right and left side of the unit for ease of access. The touchscreen display has plenty of information along with ability to control the pulse modes and durations.
This is an excellent choice if you are in the market for a diode laser. I hope to test this unit after it receives FDA approval.
Tuesday, October 02, 2007
PEDIATRICS Vol. 120 No. 4 October 2007, pp. e944-e952 (doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0124)
OBJECTIVE. Despite limited epidemiologic evidence, concern has been raised that breastfeeding and its duration may increase the risk of early childhood caries. The objective of this study was to assess the potential association of breastfeeding and other factors with the risk for early childhood caries among young children in the United States.
METHODS. Data about oral health, infant feeding, and other child and family characteristics among children 2 to 5 years of age (N = 1576) were extracted from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association of breastfeeding and its duration, as well as other factors that previous research has found associated with early childhood caries, was examined in bivariate analyses and by multivariable logistic and Poisson regression analyses.
RESULTS. After adjusting for potential confounders significant in bivariate analyses, breastfeeding and its duration were not associated with the risk for early childhood caries. Independent associations with increased risk for early childhood caries were older child age, poverty, being Mexican American, a dental visit within the last year, and maternal prenatal smoking. Poverty and being Mexican American also were independently associated with severe early childhood caries, whereas characteristics that were independently associated with greater decayed and filled surfaces on primary teeth surfaces were poverty, a dental visit within the last year, 5 years of age, and maternal smoking.
CONCLUSIONS. These data provide no evidence to suggest that breastfeeding or its duration are independent risk factors for early childhood caries, severe early childhood caries, or decayed and filled surfaces on primary teeth. In contrast, they identify poverty, Mexican American ethnic status, and maternal smoking as independent risk factors for early childhood caries, which highlights the need to target poor and Mexican American children and those whose mothers smoke for early preventive dental visits.
Monday, October 01, 2007
More information is available on the Philips Sonicare Web Site. A more detailed and dignified un-boxing will follow in the near future.
Enjoy the video.