Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Gingival bleeding on probing: relationship to change in periodontal pocket depth and effect of sodium hypochlorite oral rinse

Gonzalez S., Cohen C. L., Galván M., Alonaizan F. A., Rich S. K., Slots J. Gingival bleeding on probing: relationship to change in periodontal pocket depth and effect of sodium hypochlorite oral rinse. J Periodont Res 2014; doi: 10.1111/jre.12219. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Background and Objective

This study evaluated the potential of gingival bleeding on probing to serve as a predictor of future periodontal breakdown. It also assessed the ability of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite twice-a-week oral rinse to convert periodontal pockets showing bleeding on probing to nonbleeding sites.

Material and Methods

The study was performed as a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial in parallel groups. Seven periodontitis patients rinsed twice-weekly for 3 mo with 15 mL of a fresh solution of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite, and five periodontitis patients rinsed with water. The 12 study patients received no subgingival or supragingival scaling. Clorox® Regular-Bleach was the source of sodium hypochlorite. At baseline and 3-mo visits, gingival bleeding was assessed within 30 s after probing to full pocket depth using an approximate force of 0.75 N.

Results

A total of 470 (38%) of 1230 periodontal pockets in the bleach-rinse group revealed bleeding on probing at the initial visit but not at the 3-mo visit; only 71 (9%) of 828 pockets in the control group became bleeding-negative during the study (< 0.001). Bleeding on probing in 4- to 7-mm-deep pockets decreased by 53% in the bleach-rinse group but increased by 6% in the water-rinse group (< 0.001). Ninety-seven pockets showed depth increases of ≥ 2 mm after 3 mo: 60 (62%) of those pockets exhibited bleeding on probing at both the initial and the 3-mo visits; 24 (25%) bled at only one of the two visits; and 13 (13%) never demonstrated gingival bleeding (< 0.001).

Conclusions

Persistent gingival bleeding on probing was associated with an increased risk for periodontal breakdown, and the absence of gingival bleeding seemed to be a useful, although not perfect, indicator of disease stability. Twice-weekly oral rinsing with dilute bleach (0.25% sodium hypochlorite) produced a significant reduction in bleeding on probing, even in deep unscaled pockets. Sodium hypochlorite constitutes a valuable antiseptic in periodontal self-care.

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